Blink an LED using Linux, Zephyr & Greybus via IEEE 802.15.4

Written by Christopher Friedt, P.Eng. M.Sc., President & CEO, Friedt Professional Engineering Services, Inc

This document describes the steps required to use Linux workstation and a Greybus connection over to blink an LED on a Zephyr device. The effort to get Greybus working in Zephyr was originally announced at Linux Plumbers 2019 in the IoT Microconference (“You, Me, & IoT”) and the project was kicked off by BeagleBoard.org.

Why??

Good question. Blinking an LED is kind of the Hello, World of the hardware community. In this case, we’re less interested in the mechanics of switching a GPIO to drive some current through an LED and more interested in how that happens with the Internet of Things (IoT).

There are several existing network and application layers that are driven by corporate heavyweights and industry consortiums, but relatively few that are community driven and, more specifically, even fewer that have the ability to integrate so tightly with the Linux kernel.

The goal here is to provide a community-maintained, developer-friendly, and open-source protocol for the Internet of Things using the Greybus Protocol, and blinking an LED using Greybus is the simplest proof-of-concept for that. All that is required is a reliable transport.

History

There are a few technologies at the core of this demonstration, and far too much background information to describe adequately here, so they are simply listed below for brevity

In short, Greybus is an application layer protocol that can be described as a “bus transport” in that it conveys bus-specific messages back and forth between Linux and a connected device. The physical bus is attached to the connected device, which could be running Linux or a variety of Real-Time Operating Systems. Meanwhile, on the Linux side, a virtual bus is created corresponding to the physical bus on the connected device. To the user, this virtual bus (be it /dev/gpiochip0, /dev/i2c5, etc) appears and functions exactly the same. Greybus is the protocol used to exchange bus-specific messages and data between Linux and the connected device.

The major advantage there is that drivers can be well maintained in Linux rather than buried in microcontroller firmware.

Greybus currently supports several busses, including:

  • USB
  • I2C
  • GPIO
  • PWM
  • SPI
  • UART
  • SDIO
  • Camera (V4L)
  • LED (with various programmability)
  • AUDIO (I2S)

Hardware Requirements

  • a Linux workstation running Ubuntu Bionic
    • Only x86_64 is supported at this time
  • a board that is supported by Zephyr with support for IEEE 802.15.4
    • In this example, we use the cc1352r1_launchxl
    • Available for purchase directly from Texas Instruments or a distributor
    • Please ensure that you purchase a device with Revision E Silicon to avoid silicon errata.
    • Also ensure that all jumpers are connected GND, 5V, 3V3, RXD, TXD, RST, TMS, TCK, TDO, TDI, SW0
  • a USB IEEE 802.15.4 adapter
    • In this example, we use the atusb
    • Available for purchase from sysmocom
    • This part is OSHW (i.e. all CAD files and firmware source is available) for those who choose to create their own.

Prerequisites

  • Zephyr environment is set up according to the Getting Started Guide
    • Please use the Zephyr SDK when installing a toolchain above
  • Zephyr SDK is installed at ~/zephyr-sdk-0.11.2 (any later version should be fine as well)
  • Zephyr board is connected via USB

Console (Minicom)

In order to see diagnostic messages or to run certain commands on the Zephyr device we will require a terminal open to the device console. In this case, we use minicom. We will run it twice; the first time for setup using root privileges, and the a second time as a regular user.

Set Up Minicom

sudo minicom -s

You should see the options shown below:

            +-----[configuration]------+                                     
            | Filenames and paths      |                                     
            | File transfer protocols  |                                     
            | Serial port setup        |                                     
            | Modem and dialing        |                                     
            | Screen and keyboard      |
            | Save setup as dfl        |
            | Save setup as..          |
            | Exit                     |
            | Exit from Minicom        |
            +--------------------------+
  1. Select Serial port setup, hit Enter
  2. Press ‘A’ for Serial Device, type in /dev/ttyACM0, and hit Enter again
  3. Press ‘E’ for Bps/Par/Bits, press ‘E’ for 115200, and ‘Q’ for 8-N-1, and hit Enter again
  4. Press ‘F’ to set Hardware Flow Control: No
  5. Press Down to Save setup as.., and then enter ttyACM0 when prompted, and hit Enter
  6. Press Down to Exit from Minicom and finally hit Enter again to exit setup

Run Minicom

Now, we’ll open a terminal to Zephyr using the newly created setup with the command below.

minicom ttyACM0

Enter the following key combinations

  • Ctrl+A, U -> Add carriage return ON
  • Ctrl+A, W -> Linewrap ON
  • Ctrl+A, C -> clear the screen

To exit minicom (later), enter Ctrl+A, X.

Zephyr

Add the Fork

For the time being, Greybus must remain outside of the main Zephyr repository. Currently, it is just in a Zephyr fork, but it should be converted to a proper Module (External Project). This is for a number of reasons, but mainly there must be:

  • specifications for authentication and encryption
  • specifications for joining and rejoining wireless networks
  • specifications for discovery

Therefore, in order to reproduce this example, please run the following in your zephyr directory.

git remote add greybus https://github.com/cfriedt/zephyr.git
git fetch greybus
git checkout -b greybus-sockets greybus/greybus-sockets
west update

Build and Flash Zephyr

Here, we will build and flash the Zephyr greybus_net sample to our device.

  1. Open a separate terminal window (Ctrl+Shift+N) or simply create a new tab in your existing terminal (Ctrl+Shift+T) so that you can see both or quickly switch between minicom and the shell.
  2. Now in the shell, change to the zephyrproject/zephyr directory
  3. Edit the file ~/.zephyrrc and place the following text inside of itexport ZEPHYR_TOOLCHAIN_VARIANT=zephyr export ZEPHYR_SDK_INSTALL_DIR=~/zephyr-sdk-0.11.2 export BOARD=cc1352r1_launchxl export ZEPHYR_PROJECT=samples/subsys/greybus/net
  4. Set up the required Zephyr environment variables via source zephyr-env.sh
  5. Build the projectwest build ${ZEPHYR_PROJECT} -- -DCONF_FILE="prj.conf overlay-802154.conf"
  6. Ensure that the last part of the build process looks somewhat like this:… Memory region Used Size Region Size %age Used FLASH: 261996 B 1 MB 24.99% SRAM: 50879 B 256 KB 19.41% IDT_LIST: 152 B 2 KB 7.42% [245/245] Linking C executable zephyr/zephyr.elf
  7. Flash the firmware to your device using west flash

The Zephyr Shell

After flashing, you should observe the something matching the following output in minicom.

*** Booting Zephyr OS build zephyr-v2.3.0-4-g51eadb73fa71  ***
[00:00:00.011,444] <inf> net_config: Initializing network
[00:00:00.111,450] <inf> net_config: IPv6 address: fe80::cf99:a11c:4b:1200
[00:00:00.117,553] <inf> net_config: IPv6 address: fe80::cf99:a11c:4b:1200
gbsetup(): 584: Registering platform drivers..
gbsetup(): 587: Getting static manifest blob..
gbsetup(): 591: Parsing manifest..
GB: D: identify_descriptor():298: cport_id = 0
GB: D: identify_descriptor():298: cport_id = 1
gbsetup(): 597: Parsed manifest
gbsetup(): 599: Updating manifest blob..
gbsetup(): 602: Initializing Greybus..
gbsetup(): 609: Enabling Cports..
GB: I: enable_cports():129: Registering CONTROL greybus driver.
GB: D: _gb_register_driver():544: Registering Greybus driver on CP0
GB: I: enable_cports():136: Registering GPIO greybus driver.
GB: D: _gb_register_driver():544: Registering Greybus driver on CP1
gbsetup(): 612: Greybus is active.
netsetup(): 156: initializing control_thread stack
netsetup(): 169: initializing gpio_thread stack
netsetup(): 186: creating control server socket
netsetup(): 192: creating gpio server socket
netsetup(): 199: setting socket options for control server
netsetup(): 207: setting socket options for gpio server
netsetup(): 215: binding control server socket
netsetup(): 222: binding gpio server socket
netsetup(): 230: listening on control server socket
netsetup(): 236: listening on gpio server socket
accept_loop(): 259: preparing pollfds
accept_loop(): 266: calling poll
uart:~$ 

The line beginning with *** is the Zephyr boot banner.

Lines beginning with a timestamp of the form [H:m:s.us] are Zephyr kernel messages.

Lines beginning with uart:~$ indicates that the Zephyr shell is prompting you to enter a command.

From the informational messages shown, we observe the following.

  • Zephyr is configured with the following link-local IPv6 address fe80::cf99:a11c:4b:1200
  • It is listening for (both) TCP and UDP traffic on port 4242

However, what the log messages do not show (which will come into play later), are 2 critical pieces of information:

  1. the actual RF Channel IEEE 802.15.4 devices are only able to communicate with each other if (as you may have guessed), they are using the same frequency to transmit and recieve data. This information is part of the Physical Layer.
  2. the PAN identifier IEEE 802.15.4 devices are only be able to communicate with one another if they use the same PAN ID. This permits multiple networks (PANs) on the same frequency. This information is part of the Data Link Layer.

If we type help in the shell and hit Enter, we’re prompted with the following:

Please press the <Tab> button to see all available commands.
You can also use the <Tab> button to prompt or auto-complete all commands or its subcommands.
You can try to call commands with <-h> or <--help> parameter for more information.
Shell supports following meta-keys:
Ctrl+a, Ctrl+b, Ctrl+c, Ctrl+d, Ctrl+e, Ctrl+f, Ctrl+k, Ctrl+l, Ctrl+n, Ctrl+p, Ctrl+u, Ctrl+w
Alt+b, Alt+f.
Please refer to shell documentation for more details.

So after hitting Tab, we see that there are several interesting commands we can use for additional information.

uart:~$ 
  clear       help        history     ieee802154  log         net
  resize      sample      shell

Zephyr Shell: IEEE 802.15.4 commands

Entering ieee802154 help, we see

uart:~$ ieee802154 help
ieee802154 - IEEE 802.15.4 commands
Subcommands:
  ack             :<set/1 | unset/0> Set auto-ack flag
  associate       :<pan_id> <PAN coordinator short or long address (EUI-64)>
  disassociate    :Disassociate from network
  get_chan        :Get currently used channel
  get_ext_addr    :Get currently used extended address
  get_pan_id      :Get currently used PAN id
  get_short_addr  :Get currently used short address
  get_tx_power    :Get currently used TX power
  scan            :<passive|active> <channels set n[:m:...]:x|all> <per-channel
                   duration in ms>
  set_chan        :<channel> Set used channel
  set_ext_addr    :<long/extended address (EUI-64)> Set extended address
  set_pan_id      :<pan_id> Set used PAN id
  set_short_addr  :<short address> Set short address
  set_tx_power    :<-18/-7/-4/-2/0/1/2/3/5> Set TX power

We get the missing Channel number (frequency) with the command ieee802154 get_chan.

uart:~$ ieee802154 get_chan
Channel 26

We get the missing PAN ID with the command ieee802154 get_pan_id.

uart:~$ ieee802154 get_pan_id
PAN ID 43981 (0xabcd)

Zephyr Shell: Network Commands

Additionally, we may query the IPv6 information of the Zephyr device.

uart:~$ net iface

Interface 0x20002b20 (IEEE 802.15.4) [1]
========================================
Link addr : CD:99:A1:1C:00:4B:12:00
MTU       : 125
IPv6 unicast addresses (max 3):
        fe80::cf99:a11c:4b:1200 autoconf preferred infinite
        2001:db8::1 manual preferred infinite
IPv6 multicast addresses (max 4):
        ff02::1
        ff02::1:ff4b:1200
        ff02::1:ff00:1
IPv6 prefixes (max 2):
        <none>
IPv6 hop limit           : 64
IPv6 base reachable time : 30000
IPv6 reachable time      : 16929
IPv6 retransmit timer    : 0

And we see that the static IPv6 address (2001:db8::1) from samples/net/sockets/echo_server/prj.conf is present and configured. While the statically configured IPv6 address is useful, it isn’t 100% necessary.

Linux

Probe the IEEE 802.15.4 Device Driver

On the Linux machine, we’ve inserted our atusb device, and should now be able to run sudo modprobe atusb. The kernel should provide some information messages (via dmesg) to indicate that the device is recognized.

[704054.909350] usb 1-1.3: ATUSB: AT86RF231 version 2
[704054.909602] usb 1-1.3: Firmware: major: 0, minor: 2, hardware type: ATUSB (2)
[704054.910097] usb 1-1.3: Firmware: build #24 Wed 20 May 15:19:58 CEST 2015
[704054.927872] usbcore: registered new interface driver atusb

We should now be able to see the IEEE 802.15.4 network device by entering ip a show wpan0.

$ ip a show wpan0
36: wpan0: <BROADCAST,NOARP,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 123 qdisc fq_codel state UNKNOWN group default qlen 300
    link/ieee802.15.4 3e:7d:90:4d:8f:00:76:a2 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff

But wait, that is not an IP address! It’s the hardware address of the 802.15.4 device. So, in order to associate it with an IP address, we need to run a couple of other commands (thanks to cakelab.org).

Set the 802.15.4 Physical and Link-Layer Parameters

  1. First, get the phy number for the wpan0 device$ iwpan list wpan_phy phy0 supported channels: page 0: 11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26 current_page: 0 current_channel: 26, 2480 MHz cca_mode: (1) Energy above threshold cca_ed_level: -77 tx_power: 3 capabilities: iftypes: node,monitor channels: page 0: [11] 2405 MHz, [12] 2410 MHz, [13] 2415 MHz, [14] 2420 MHz, [15] 2425 MHz, [16] 2430 MHz, [17] 2435 MHz, [18] 2440 MHz, [19] 2445 MHz, [20] 2450 MHz, [21] 2455 MHz, [22] 2460 MHz, [23] 2465 MHz, [24] 2470 MHz, [25] 2475 MHz, [26] 2480 MHz tx_powers: 3 dBm, 2.8 dBm, 2.3 dBm, 1.8 dBm, 1.3 dBm, 0.7 dBm, 0 dBm, -1 dBm, -2 dBm, -3 dBm, -4 dBm, -5 dBm, -7 dBm, -9 dBm, -12 dBm, -17 dBm, cca_ed_levels: -91 dBm, -89 dBm, -87 dBm, -85 dBm, -83 dBm, -81 dBm, -79 dBm, -77 dBm, -75 dBm, -73 dBm, -71 dBm, -69 dBm, -67 dBm, -65 dBm, -63 dBm, -61 dBm, cca_modes: (1) Energy above threshold (2) Carrier sense only (3, cca_opt: 0) Carrier sense with energy above threshold (logical operator is ‘and’) (3, cca_opt: 1) Carrier sense with energy above threshold (logical operator is ‘or’) min_be: 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8 max_be: 3,4,5,6,7,8 csma_backoffs: 0,1,2,3,4,5 frame_retries: 3 lbt: false
  2. Next, set the Channel for the 802.15.4 device on the Linux machinesudo iwpan phy phy0 set channel 0 26
  3. Then, set the PAN identifier for the 802.15.4 device on the Linux machinesudo iwpan dev wpan0 set pan_id 0xabcd

Create a 6LowPAN Network Interface

  1. Associate the wpan0 device to a new, 6lowpan network interfacesudo ip link add link wpan0 name lowpan0 type lowpan
  2. Finally, set the links up for both wpan0 and lowpan0sudo ip link set wpan0 up sudo ip link set lowpan0 up

We should observe something like the following when we run ip a show lowpan0.

ip a show lowpan0
37: lowpan0@wpan0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1280 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN group default qlen 1000
    link/6lowpan 9e:0b:a4:e8:00:d3:45:53 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    inet6 fe80::9c0b:a4e8:d3:4553/64 scope link 
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever

Ping Pong

Broadcast Ping

Now, perform a broadcast ping to see what else is listening on lowpan0.

$ ping6 -I lowpan0 ff02::1
PING ff02::1(ff02::1) from fe80::9c0b:a4e8:d3:4553%lowpan0 lowpan0: 56 data bytes
64 bytes from fe80::9c0b:a4e8:d3:4553%lowpan0: icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=0.099 ms
64 bytes from fe80::9c0b:a4e8:d3:4553%lowpan0: icmp_seq=2 ttl=64 time=0.125 ms
64 bytes from fe80::cf99:a11c:4b:1200%lowpan0: icmp_seq=2 ttl=64 time=17.3 ms (DUP!)
64 bytes from fe80::9c0b:a4e8:d3:4553%lowpan0: icmp_seq=3 ttl=64 time=0.126 ms
64 bytes from fe80::cf99:a11c:4b:1200%lowpan0: icmp_seq=3 ttl=64 time=9.60 ms (DUP!)
64 bytes from fe80::9c0b:a4e8:d3:4553%lowpan0: icmp_seq=4 ttl=64 time=0.131 ms
64 bytes from fe80::cf99:a11c:4b:1200%lowpan0: icmp_seq=4 ttl=64 time=14.9 ms (DUP!)

Yay! We have pinged (pung?) the Zephyr device over IEEE 802.15.4 using 6LowPAN!

Ping Zephyr

We can ping the Zephyr device directly without a broadcast ping too, of course.

$ ping6 -I lowpan0 fe80::cf99:a11c:4b:1200
PING fe80::cf99:a11c:4b:1200(fe80::cf99:a11c:4b:1200) from fe80::9c0b:a4e8:d3:4553%lowpan0 lowpan0: 56 data bytes
64 bytes from fe80::cf99:a11c:4b:1200%lowpan0: icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=16.0 ms
64 bytes from fe80::cf99:a11c:4b:1200%lowpan0: icmp_seq=2 ttl=64 time=13.8 ms
64 bytes from fe80::cf99:a11c:4b:1200%lowpan0: icmp_seq=3 ttl=64 time=9.77 ms
64 bytes from fe80::cf99:a11c:4b:1200%lowpan0: icmp_seq=5 ttl=64 time=11.5 ms

Ping Linux

Similarly, we can ping the Linux host from the Zephyr shell.

uart:~$ net ping --help
ping - Ping a network host.
Subcommands:
  --help  :'net ping [-c count] [-i interval ms] <host>' Send ICMPv4 or ICMPv6
           Echo-Request to a network host.
$ net ping -c 5 fe80::9c0b:a4e8:d3:4553
PING fe80::9c0b:a4e8:d3:4553
8 bytes from fe80::9c0b:a4e8:d3:4553 to fe80::cf99:a11c:4b:1200: icmp_seq=0 ttl=64 rssi=110 time=11 ms
8 bytes from fe80::9c0b:a4e8:d3:4553 to fe80::cf99:a11c:4b:1200: icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 rssi=126 time=9 ms
8 bytes from fe80::9c0b:a4e8:d3:4553 to fe80::cf99:a11c:4b:1200: icmp_seq=2 ttl=64 rssi=128 time=13 ms
8 bytes from fe80::9c0b:a4e8:d3:4553 to fe80::cf99:a11c:4b:1200: icmp_seq=3 ttl=64 rssi=126 time=10 ms
8 bytes from fe80::9c0b:a4e8:d3:4553 to fe80::cf99:a11c:4b:1200: icmp_seq=4 ttl=64 rssi=126 time=7 ms

Assign a Static Address

So far, we have been using IPv6 Link-Local addressing. However, the Zephyr application is configured to use a statically configured IPv6 address as well which is, namely 2001:db8::1.

If we add a similar static IPv6 address to our Linux IEEE 802.15.4 network interface, lowpan0, then we should expect to be able to reach that as well.

In Linux, run the following

sudo ip -6 addr add 2001:db8::2/64 dev lowpan0

We can verify that the address has been set by examining the lowpan0 network interface again.

$ ip a show lowpan0
37: lowpan0@wpan0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1280 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN group default qlen 1000
    link/6lowpan 9e:0b:a4:e8:00:d3:45:53 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    inet6 2001:db8::2/64 scope global 
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    inet6 fe80::9c0b:a4e8:d3:4553/64 scope link 
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever

Lastly, ping to the statically configured IPv6 address of the Zephyr device.

$ ping6 2001:db8::1
PING 2001:db8::1(2001:db8::1) 56 data bytes
64 bytes from 2001:db8::1: icmp_seq=2 ttl=64 time=53.7 ms
64 bytes from 2001:db8::1: icmp_seq=3 ttl=64 time=13.1 ms
64 bytes from 2001:db8::1: icmp_seq=4 ttl=64 time=22.0 ms
64 bytes from 2001:db8::1: icmp_seq=5 ttl=64 time=22.7 ms
64 bytes from 2001:db8::1: icmp_seq=6 ttl=64 time=18.4 ms

Now that we have set up a reliable transport, let’s move on to the application layer.

Greybus

Hopefully the videos listed earlier provide a sufficient foundation to understand what will happen shortly. However, there is still a bit more preparation required.

Build and probe Greybus Kernel Modules

Greybus was originally intended to work exclusively on the UniPro physical layer. However, we’re using RF as our physical layer and TCP/IP as our transport. As such, there was need to be able to communicate with the Linux Greybus facilities through userspace, and out of that need arose gb-netlink. The Netlink Greybus module actually does not care about the physical layer, but is happy to usher Greybus messages back and forth between the kernel and userspace.

Build and probe the gb-netlink modules (as well as the other Greybus modules) with the following:

cd ${WORKSPACE}
git clone https://github.com/friedtco/greybus.git
cd greybus
make -j`nproc --all`
./gbprobe.sh

Build and Run Gbridge (Greybus Bridge)

The gbridge utility was created as a proof of concept to abstract the Greybus Netlink datapath among several reliable transports. For the purposes of this tutorial, we’ll be using it as a TCP/IP bridge.

To download and run gbridge, perform the following:

cd ${WORKSPACE}
git clone https://github.com/friedtco/gbridge.git
cd gbridge
autoreconf -vfi
GBDIR=${PWD}/../greybus \
  ./configure --enable-uart --enable-tcpip --disable-gbsim --enable-netlink --disable-bluetooth
make -j`nproc --all`
./gbridge

Blinky!

Now that we have set up a reliable TCP transport, and set up the Greybus modules in the Linux kernel, and used Gbridge to connect a Greybus node to the Linux kernel via TCP/IP, we can now get to the heart of the demonstration!

First, gain root privileges using sudo -s. Then, you can copy & paste the following into your terminal and observe led0 blinking.

CHIP=`gpiodetect | grep "greybus_gpio" | awk '{print $1}'`
VAL=0; for ((;;)); do VAL=$((VAL^1)); echo $VAL | gpioset ${CHIP} 0=${VAL}; done

The output of your minicom session should resemble the following.

*** Booting Zephyr OS build zephyr-v2.3.0-4-g51eadb73fa71  ***
[00:00:00.011,535] <inf> net_config: Initializing network
[00:00:00.111,511] <inf> net_config: IPv6 address: fe80::cf99:a11c:4b:1200
[00:00:00.119,628] <inf> net_config: IPv6 address: fe80::cf99:a11c:4b:1200
gbsetup(): 584: Registering platform drivers..
gbsetup(): 587: Getting static manifest blob..
gbsetup(): 591: Parsing manifest..
GB: D: identify_descriptor():298: cport_id = 0
GB: D: identify_descriptor():298: cport_id = 1
gbsetup(): 597: Parsed manifest
gbsetup(): 599: Updating manifest blob..
gbsetup(): 602: Initializing Greybus..
gbsetup(): 609: Enabling Cports..
GB: I: enable_cports():129: Registering CONTROL greybus driver.
GB: D: _gb_register_driver():544: Registering Greybus driver on CP0
GB: I: enable_cports():136: Registering GPIO greybus driver.
GB: D: _gb_register_driver():544: Registering Greybus driver on CP1
gbsetup(): 612: Greybus is active.
netsetup(): 156: initializing control_thread stack
netsetup(): 169: initializing gpio_thread stack
netsetup(): 186: creating control server socket
netsetup(): 192: creating gpio server socket
netsetup(): 199: setting socket options for control server
netsetup(): 207: setting socket options for gpio server
netsetup(): 215: binding control server socket
netsetup(): 222: binding gpio server socket
netsetup(): 230: listening on control server socket
netsetup(): 236: listening on gpio server socket
accept_loop(): 259: preparing pollfds
accept_loop(): 266: calling poll
accept_loop(): 272: returned from poll
accept_loop(): 274: control socket has a traffic
accept_loop(): 290: accepted connection from [2001:db8::2]:46140 as fd 2
accept_loop(): 292: spawning control thread..
accept_loop(): 259: preparing pollfds
accept_loop(): 266: calling poll
GB: D: gb_process_request():251: gb_control_protocol_version: 0
GB: D: gb_process_request():251: gb_control_get_manifest_size: 0
GB: D: gb_process_request():251: gb_control_get_manifest: 0
GB: D: gb_process_request():251: gb_control_bundle_activate: 0
accept_loop(): 272: returned from poll
accept_loop(): 302: gpio service has traffic
accept_loop(): 318: accepted connection from [2001:db8::2]:48314 as fd 3
accept_loop(): 320: spawning gpio thread..
pthread_create: Success
GB: D: gb_process_request():251: gb_control_connected: 0
GB: D: gb_process_request():251: gb_gpio_line_count: 0
GB: D: gb_process_request():251: gb_gpio_get_direction: 0
GB: D: gb_process_request():251: gb_gpio_activate: 0
GB: D: gb_process_request():251: gb_gpio_get_direction: 0
GB: D: gb_process_request():251: gb_gpio_direction_out: 0
GB: D: gb_process_request():251: gb_gpio_deactivate: 0
GB: D: gb_process_request():251: gb_gpio_activate: 0
GB: D: gb_process_request():251: gb_gpio_get_direction: 0
GB: D: gb_process_request():251: gb_gpio_direction_out: 0
GB: D: gb_process_request():251: gb_gpio_deactivate: 0
GB: D: gb_process_request():251: gb_gpio_activate: 0
GB: D: gb_process_request():251: gb_gpio_get_direction: 0
GB: D: gb_process_request():251: gb_gpio_direction_out: 0
...

Conclusion

The blinking LED can be a somewhat anticlimactic, but hopefully it illustrates the potential for Greybus as an IoT application layer protocol.

The proof-of-concept involving Linux, Zephyr, and IEEE 802.15.4 was actually fairly straight forward and was accomplished with mostly already-upstream source.

For Greybus, there is still a considerable amount of integration work to be done, including

  • converting the fork to a proper Zephyr module
  • integrating seamlessly with Zephyr’s I/O APIs (e.g. for i2c, spi, etc)
  • automated testing
  • adding security and authentication
  • automatic detection, joining, and rejoining of devices
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